Types of Indian pure poultry breeds

There are only four pure Indian poultry breeds available.

1. Aseel

  • It is noted for its pugnacity, high stamina, majestic gait and dogged fighting qualities.
  • The popular varieties of Aseel are, Peela (Golden red), Yakub (Black and red), Nuri (White), Kagar (Black), Chitta (Black and white spotted), Java (Black), Sabja (White and golden or black with yellow or silver), Teekar (brown) and Reza (light red).
  • Pea comb, bright red wattle and ear lobes, long neck and strong legs

2. Chittagong

  • It is also known as Malay.
  • Dual-purpose bird.
  • The popular varieties are buff, white, black, dark brown and grey.
  • Pea comb, red ear lobes, over-hanging prominent eyebrows, feather-less shank

3. Kadaknath

  • The skin, beak, shanks, toes and soles of feet are slate-like in colour
  • Comb, wattles and tongue are purple.
  • Most of the internal organs show intense black colouration and varying degrees of black colour are seen in the skeletal muscles, tendons, nerves, brain etc. The black pigment is due to the deposition of melanin.

4. Busra

  • Medium sized bird, deep bodied, light feathered and alert in nature.
  • Poor layer.
  • Wide variation in body colour

Breeds of Poultry

Jharsim: A location specific rural poultry variety for Jharkhand

Jharsim is a dual purpose location specific poultry variety suitable for Jharkhand state. The variety is developed under All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Poultry Breeding, Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi Centre.

The name Jharsim is derived from Jhar for Jarkhand and sim meaning hen in tribal dialect. These birds have attractive multi-colour plumage, perform better on low level of nutrition, faster growth, optimum egg production and better adaptability to agro climatic conditions of Jharkhand. The birds weigh 400-500g at 6 weeks and 1600-1800 g at maturity under backyard system. The age at first egg laying is 175-180 days and egg weight is 52-55g at 40 weeks of age. The birds have the potential to lay 165-170 eggs and under backyard system. This variety can provide higher supplementary income and nutrition through both egg and meat to rural/ tribal population of the state.

Kamrupa: A dual purpose variety for free range farming in Assam

“Kamrupa” is a multi-coloured bird for rural poultry production developed under All India Coordinated Research Project on Poultry Breeding at Assam Agriculture University, Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam. It is three way cross developed using Assam local ecotype (25%), Coloured Broiler (25%) and Dalhem Red (50%) population. This variety has coloured plumage, mediocre body weight and longer shanks with optimum egg production. Under backyard system, the body weight at 8 and 20 weeks is 500-650 grams and 1300-1500grams, respectively.  The male birds weigh 1800-2200 grams at 40 weeks of age the annual egg production is 118-130 eggs with an egg weight of 52 grams.

Pratapdhan: dual purpose coloured bird for Rajasthan

Pratapdhan is a dual purpose chicken variety to cater to the needs of rural poultry keepers of Rajasthan. pratapdhanIt was developed as part of AICRP on Poultry Breeding by MPUAT, Udaipur. It resembles local birds of Rajasthan. Attractive multicolour feather pattern, as rural people like coloured birds from aesthetic point of view and better looking. Because of colour plumage birds have camouflagic characters to protect themselves from predators. Birds have longer shank length which helps in self protection from predators in backyard areas and has capacity to survive on low plane of nutrition (low and negligible input) and harsh climatic conditions. It lays brown eggs weighing around 50 g and has broody characteristic to some extent. It has fast growth rate with average adult body weight at 20 weeks of age ranged from 1478 to 3020 g in males and 1283 to 2736 g in females. The age at sexual maturity was 170 days. Pratapdhan produces 161 eggs annually, which is 274% higher than local native (43 eggs).

Breeds from Central Avian Research Institute (CARI), Izatnagar

Desi Types / Backyard Types

CARI NIRBHEEK (Aseel Cross)

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  • The literal meaning of Aseel is real or pure. Aseel is well known for its pugnacity, high stamina, majestic gait and dogged fighting qualities. The name Aseel appears to have been given to this indigenous breed because of its inherent qualities of fighting.
  • Andhra Pradesh is said to be the home of this important breed. The best specimen of this breed, although rare, are encountered with the fanciers and the people engaged in cock-fighting show through out the country.
  • Aseel is larger in built with noble looking and dignified appearance.
  • The standard weight varies from 3 to 4 kg for cocks and 2 to 3 kg for hens.
  • Age at sexual maturity (days) 196 days
  • Annual egg production (number) 92
  • Egg weight at 40 week (g) 50.

 

CARI SHYAMA (Kadakanath Cross)

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  • It is locally known as “Kalamasi” meaning the fowl having black flesh. Jhabua and Dhar districts of Madhya Pradesh and the adjoining districts of Rajasthan and Gujarat spreading over an area of about 800sq. miles is considered to be its home tract.
  • These are mostly reared by tribals, adivasis and rural poor. It is considered to be a sacred bird and offered as sacrifice to Goddess after Diwali.
  • The colour of the day old chicks is bluish to black with irregular dark stripes over the back.
  • The flesh of this breed though black and repulsive to look at, is considered not only a delicacy but also of medicinal value.
  • The tribal uses Kadakanath blood in the treatment of chronic disease in human beings and its meat as aphrodisiac.
  • The meat and eggs are reckoned to be a rich source of protein (25.47% in flesh) and iron.
  • Body weight at 20 weeks (g) 920
  • Age at sexual maturity (days) 180
  • Annual egg production (number) 105
  • Egg weight at 40 week (g) 49
  • Fertility (%) 55
  • Hatchability FES (%) 52

 

HITCARI (Naked Neck Cross)

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  • Naked neck is relatively larger in built with long cylindrical neck. As the name indicates, neck of the birds is fully naked or only a tuft of feathers is seen on the front of the neck above crop.
  • The resulting bare skin becomes reddish particularly in males as they approach sexual maturity.
  • Trivandrum region of Kerala is considered to be the homeland of Naked neck
  • Body weight at 20 weeks (g) 1005
  • Age at sexual maturity (days) 201
  • Annual egg production (number) 99
  • Egg weight at 40 week (g) 54
  • Fertility (%) 66
  • Hatchability FES (%) 71

 

UPCARI (Frizzle Cross)

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Unique scavenging type birds developed with native breed base, having typical desi fowl look, better tropical adaptability and disease resistance, exceptional growth and production performance. Best suited for backyard system of poultry production.

Four varieties of UPCARI birds suitable for different agro-climatic conditions are available.

  1. Kadakanath x Dehlam Red
  2. Aseel x Dehlam Red
  3. Naked Neck x Dehlam Red
  4. Frizzle x Dehlam Red

Performance Profile

  • Age at sexual maturity 170-180 days
  • Annual egg production 165-180 eggs
    Egg size 52-55 g
  • Egg colour Brown
  • Egg quality Excellent Internal quality
  • Livability Above 95%
  • Temperament Active and good forager

Layers

CARI PRIYA LAYER

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  • First egg at 17 to 18 weeks
  • 50% production at 150 days
  • Peak production at 26 to 28 weeks
  • Liveability of grower (96%) and layer (94%)
  • Egg production peak 92%
  • Hen Housed to 72 wk. more than 270 eggs
  • Egg size Average
  • Egg weight 54 g

Cari Sonali Layer(Golden – 92)

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  • First egg at 18 to 19 weeks
  • 50% production at 155 days
  • Peak production at 27 to 29 weeks
  • Livability of grower (96%) and layer (94%)
  • Egg production Peak 90%
  • Hen Housed to 72 wk. more than 265 eggs
  • Egg size Average
  • Egg weight 54 g

CARI-DEVENDRA

  • A medium -sized dual- purpose bird
  • Efficient feed conversion – High positive return over feed cost
  • Superiority over other stocks- Low laying house mortality
  • Body weight at 8th week-1700-1800g
  • Age at sexual maturity-155-160 days
  • Annual egg production- 190-200
Broilers

CARIBRO-VISHAL (CARIBRO-91)

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  • Weight at day old : 43g
  • Weight at 6 weeks : 1650 to 1700g
  • Weight at 7 weeks : 2100 to 2200g
  • Dressing percentage : 75%
  • Livability percentage : 97-98%
  • Feed conversion ratio at 6 weeks : 1.94 to 2.20

CARI-RAINBRO (B-77)

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  • Weight at day old : 41g
  • Weight at 6 weeks : 1300 g
  • Weight at 7 weeks : 1600 g
  • Dressing percentage : 73%
  • Livability percentage : 98-99%
  • Feed conversion ratio at 6 weeks : 2.3

CARIBRO-DHANRAJA (Multi-Coloured)

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  • Weight at day old : 46g
  • Weight at 6 weeks : 1600 to 1650g
  • Weight at 7 weeks : 2000 to 2150g
  • Dressing percentage : 73%
  • Livability percentage : 97-98%
  • Feed conversion ratio at 6 weeks : 1.90 to 2.10

CARIBRO-MRITUNJAI (CARI Naked Neck)

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  • Weight at day old : 42g
  • Weight at 6 weeks : 1650 to 1700g
  • Weight at 7 weeks : 2000 to 2150g
  • Dressing percentage : 77%
  • Livability percentage : 97-98%
  • Feed conversion ratio at 6 weeks : 1.9 to 2.0
Quails

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  • Japanese quail have created a big impact in recent years and many quails farms have been established through out the country both for egg and meat production. It is due to fact that increasing consumer awareness for quality meat.
  • The following factors, which made quail farming as economically viable and technically feasible.
    • Very short generation interval
    • Quails are very robust to diseases
    • No vaccination is required
    • Low space requirement
    • Easy to handle
    • Early maturity
    • Very high laying intensity- female starts laying at an age of 42

CARI UTTAM

  • Hatchability on total eggs set: 60-76%
  • Weight at 4 weeks: 150 g
  • Weight at 5 weeks: 170-190 g
  • Feed efficiency at 4 weeks: 2.51
  • Feed efficiency at 5 weeks: 2.80
  • Daily feed consumption: 25-28 g

CARI UJJAWAL

  • Hatchability on total eggs set 65%
  • Weight at 4 weeks 140 g
  • Weight at 5 weeks 170-175 g
  • Feed efficiency at 5 weeks 2.93
  • Daily feed consumption: 25-28 g

CARI SWETA

  • Hatchability on total eggs set 50-60%
  • Weight at 4 weeks 135 g
  • Weight at 5 weeks 155-165 g
  • Feed efficiency at 4 weeks 2.85
  • Feed efficiency at 5 weeks 2.90
  • Daily feed consumption: 25 g

CARI PEARL

  • Hatchability on total eggs set: 65-70%
  • Weight at 4 weeks: 120 g
  • Daily feed consumption: 25 g
  • Age at 50% egg production: 8-10 wk
  • Hen day production: 285-295 eggs
Guinea fowl

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  • Guinea fowl are highly free moving birds.
  • Best suited for marginal and small farmers
  • Three available varieties are KADMBARI, CHITAMBARI and SWETAMBARI

Special features

  • Hardy bird
  • Suitable to any agro-climatic condition
  • Resistant to many common diseases of chicken
  • No requirement of elaborate and expensive housing
  • Excellent foraging capabilities
  • Consumes all non-conventional feed not used in chicken feeding
  • More tolerant to mycotoxin and aflatoxin
  • Hard egg shell provides minimum breakage and long keeping quality
  • Guinea fowl meat is rich in vitamin and low in cholesterol

Production characteristics

  • Weight at 8 weeks 500-550 g
  • Weight at 12 weeks 900-1000 g
  • Age at first egg 230-250 day
  • Average egg weight 38-40 g
  • Egg production (in one laying cycle from March to September) 100-120 eggs
  • Fertility 70-75%
  • Hatchability on fertile eggs set 70-80%
Turkey

CARI-VIRAT

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  • Broad Breasted White type
  • Turkey is marketed as broiler at approximately 16 weeks of age when hens usually reach a live weight of about 8 kg and toms weigh approximately 12 kg.
  • Smaller, fryer roasters can be produced by slaughtering at an earlier age as per the demand of the local market.

For availability of breeds please contact:

Director
Central Avian research Institute
Izatnagar, UP
Pin: 243 122
E-mail: cari_director@rediffmail.com
Ph: 91-581-2301220; 2301320; 2303223; 2300204
Fax: 91-581-2301321

Breeds from The Directorate of Poultry Research (ICAR), Hyderabad.

GrGramapriya breedamapriya

It is a layer type variety and was developed for free range farming in rural and tribal areas. The bird has the production potential of 230-240 eggs in a year and can lay 160-180 eggs in free-range conditions with minimum supplementary feeding. The males weigh around 1.2 to 1.5kg at 15 wks of age and suitable for tandoori preparations. The bird has coloured plumage and lays bigger (57-59g) and brown eggs. It is hardy and livability is high. The rural and tribal farmers of many states are being profited by this variety.

 

 

SinSrinidhi poulty breedidhi

Srinidhi is a dual purpose variety for rural poultry production. Srinidhi has optimum body weight and better egg production. It was evaluated twice for full length of production cycle of 72 weeks at the Directorate of Poultry Research farm. Its juvenile body weight at 6 weeks of age was 650 g and males weighed 2353 g at 15 weeks of age. The age at sexual maturity was 161 days. The egg production upto 40 weeks of age was 90 eggs and the annual egg production was 228 eggs under intensive system of rearing. The survivability was more than 95%.

Subsequently, the variety was evaluated under field conditions in Tripura, Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh. In the backyards, the juvenile body weight at 6 weeks of age was 500-550 g, the age at sexual maturity was 170-175 days. The egg production upto 40 weeks of age was 55-60 eggs and the bird has potential to lay 140-150 eggs per year under backyard.

Salient features under rural backyards

  • Multi coloured plumage
  • Longer shanks
  • Coloured and bigger eggs (53-55 g)
  • Juvenile b.wt. : 500-550 g at 6 weeks
  • Early maturing (175 days)
  • Annual egg production : 150 eggs

 

VANARAJA

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  • Suitable bird for backyard farming in rural and tribal areas, developed by the Project Directorate on Poultry (ICAR), Hyderabad.
  • It is a multi-coloured dual purpose bird with attractive plumage.
  • It has better immune status against common poultry diseases and is adaptable to the free range rearing.
  • Vanaraja males attain moderate body weight at 8 weeks of age under regular feeding system
  • The hen lays 160-180 eggs in a laying cycle
  • Due to their relatively light weight and long shanks, these birds are capable to protect themselves from predators which are otherwise a major problem observed in birds reared in backyards.

KRISHIBRO

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  • Developed by the Project Directorate on Poultry (ICAR), Hyderabad.
  • Multi-colored commercial broiler chicks
  • Attain body weight by 6 weeks of age with less than 2.2 feed conversion ratios.
  • The survivability of this bird up to 6 weeks of age is around 97%.
  • These birds have attractive color plumage and are well adapted to tropical weather conditions.
  • The commercial Krishibro has highly resistance against the common poultry diseases like Ranikhet and Infectious bursal disease.
  • Advantages : Hardy, Well adapted and Better survivability

 

For availability of breeds please contact:

Directorate of Poultry Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500 030, Telangana, India

Ph : +91-40-24015651, 24017000 (Monday to Saturday except 2nd Saturdays of each month and National Holidays) 

Germplasm supply & Hatchery : +91-40-24018687

Breeds from Karnataka Veterinary Animal Fishery Science and University, Bangalore

Swarnadhara

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Developed by Department of Poultry Science, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, presently Karnataka Veterinary Animal Fishery Sciences University, Hebbal, Bangalore

  • This breed yields 15-20 eggs in a year more than Giriraja chicken breed and was released by the Karnataka Veterinary Animal Fishery Sciences University, Bangalore in 2005. Swarnadhara chickens have a high egg production potential along with better growth compared to other local varieties and are suited for mixed and backyard farming
  • Compared to Giriraja breed, Swarnadhara breed are smaller in size with a lighter body weight, which makes them easier to escape attacks from predators such as jungle cats and foxes
  • The bird can be reared for its eggs and meat.
  • It attains maturity from the 22-23rd week after hatching.
  • Hens attain a body weight of about 3 kg and the cocks about 4 kg.
  • Swarnadhara hens lay about 180-190 eggs in a year.

For availability of breeds please contact:
Prof and Head,
Department of Avian Production and Management,
Karnataka Veterinary Animal Fishery Sciences University,
Hebbal, Bangalore: 560024,
Phone: (080) 23414384 or 23411483 (ext)201.

Other native breeds

Breed Home Tract
Ankaleshwar Gujarat
Aseel
Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Andhra
Pradesh
Busra Gujarat and Maharashtra
Chittagong Meghalaya and Tripura
Danki Andhra Pradesh
Daothigir Assam
Ghagus Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka
Harringhata Black West Bengal
Kadaknath Madhya Pradesh
Kalasthi Andhra Pradesh
Kashmir Faverolla Jammu and Kashmir
Miri Assam
Nicobari Andaman & Nicobar
Punjab Brown Punjab and Haryana
Tellichery Kerala
Mewari Rajasthan

Availability

Desi types or backyard types of poultry birds are being supplied by the following organisations

  1. Breeds from Central Aviation Research Institute (CARI)
  2. Directorate of Poultry Research (ICAR), Hyderabad
  3. Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar, Karnataka
  4. Kadaknath KB Livestock Farm

Source: Expert System on Poultry, ICAR-TANUVAS-TNAU; vikaspedia

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